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媒介行业术语

AAAA (American Associations of Advertising Agencies): AAAA (美国广告代理商协会)

美国广告代理公司的行业组织.
A trade association of U.S. advertising agencies.


Advertising agency: 广告代理

为客户准备及投放广告的公司.这些公司有专门的媒介部门从事广告时间的策划, 购买及评估.
A company that prepares and places advertising for its clients Agencies typically have media departments that specialize in planning, buying, and evaluating advertising time.


AQH (Average Quarter Hour):平均15分钟间隔(AQH)

用于报告特定时段内平均受众量的标准时间单位.(如:AQH 视听率, AQH 受众份额).
The standard unit of time for reporting average audience estimates(e.g.,AQH rating, AQH share)within specified dayparts.


Audience flow: 受众流动

受众从某一节目或时段转向另一个节目或时段的程度.
The extent to which audiences persist from one program or time period to the next. See audience duplication, inheritance effects.

Audience duplication: 受众重叠

一种累计受众测量. 显示了一个节目或媒介的受众成为另一个节目或媒介受众的程度.
A cumulative measure of the audience that describes the extent to which audience members for one program or station are also in the audience of another program or station.


Audience fragmentation: 受众细分

是一种媒介的受众分散在该媒介的众多节目中的现象.如: 有线电视进一步细分了电视观众, 使个频道的观众份额减少.
A phenomenon in which the audience for a medium is distributed across a large number of program services. Cable is said to fragment the television audience, resulting in a decreased average audience share for each channel.

Audience polarization: 受众两极分化

是一种与受众细分有关的现象.某媒介或频道的受众比起一般受众更多地收看/收听该媒介或频道.
A phenomenon associated with audience fragmentation, in which the audiences for channels or stations use them more intensively than an average audience member.

Audience turnover: 受众周转

是一种受众行为.通常表示为某媒介累计受众与平均15分钟受众的比例.
A phenomenon of audience behavior usually expressed as the ratio of a station's cumulative audience to its average quarter hour audience.


Available audience: 可得受众

在任一时间点确实有可能使用某媒介的总体人数.在实际工作中被定义为确实使用了某媒介的受众.
The number of people who are, realistically, in a position to use a medium at any point in time. It is often operationally deaned as those actually using the medium (i.e., PUT or PUR levels).


Average audience rating: 平均受众视听率

在特定时期内,某媒介或节目平均时间点的视听率.例如: 测量仪数据报告的是在一个电视节目中平均每分钟的观众量.
The rating of a station or program at an average point in time within some specified period of time. Metered data, for example, allow reports of audience size in an average minute during a television program.

Away from home listening: 户外收听

户外广播收听的预测.通常指车中收听或工作中收听.
Estimate of radio listening that occurs outside the home. Such listening usually takes place in a car or workplace.


Basic cable: 基本有线电视

由有线电视系统以最低收费提供的节目服务,包括:地区电视信号,广告商赞助的有线电视网,以及接通服务.
The programming services provided by a cable system for the lowest of its monthly charges. These services typically include local television signals, advertiser-supported cable networks, and local access.


Block programming: 节目组合

是将类似节目编排在一起的做法.旨在提高受众流动.
The practice of scheduling similar programs in sequence to promote audience flow.


Cable system: 有线电视系统

一种影像传送系统.它根据协议, 使用同轴电缆和光纤电缆向家庭传输多频道电视节目.
A video distribution system that uses coaxial cable and optical fiber to deliver multichannel service to households within a geographically defined franchise area.

Cable penetration: 有线电视渗透

在特定市场上家庭安装有线电视的程度.表示为安装有线电视的家庭所占的百分比.
The extent to which households in a given market subscribe to cable service. Typically expressed as the percent of all TV households that subscribe to basic cable.

Callback: 回访

是指在调查中对样本初次访问失败后的再次访问.回访的次数是回复率和无回复误差的重要决定因素.
The practice in attempting to interview someone in a survey sample who was not contacted or interviewed on an earlier try. The number of call back attempts is an important determinant of response rates and nonresponse error.


Census: 人口普查

对人口中的每一个成员进行访问和测量的一项调查.
A Study in which every member of a population is interviewed or measured.

Channel loyalty: 频道忠诚度

累计受众行为的一种表现.一个节目的受众不合比例地成为同一频道另一节目的受众.
A common phenomenon of aggregate audience behavior in which the audience for one program tends to be disproportionately represented in the audience for other programs on the same channel.

Circulation: 循环

暴露于某媒介的全部非重叠受众.
The total number of unduplicated audience members exposed to a media vehicle (e.g. newspaper station) over some specified period.

Cluster sample: 群抽样

是一种将样本单元聚集在一起的随机抽样法.样本群在抽样的某一步骤被抽出.
A type of probability sample in which aggregations of sampling units, called clusters, are sampled at some stage in the process.


Codes: 代码

在调查中(如:日记)用于代表回复的数字或字母.为答案设置代码可以使计算机进行数据处理.
The numbers or letters used to represent responses in a survey instrument like a diary. Coding the responses allows computers to manipulate the data.

Coincidental: 巧合

一种电话访问法. 访问员询问被访者正在收看/收听的节目.该方法以随机样本为基础, 其标准参照其它视听率调查法.
A type of telephone survey in which interviewers ask respondents what they are watching or listening to at the time of the call. Coincidentals, based on probability samples, often set the standard against which other ratings methods are judged.

Confidence level: 置信度

在随机抽样中,它代表了一组数值(如:置信间隔)成为真实人口数值的可能性.
In probability sampling, a statement of the likelihood that a range of values (i.e. confidence interval) will include the true population value

Convenience sample: 方便抽样

一种非随机抽样法,有时也叫偶然抽样.在有现成的方便的被调查人时使用.
A nonprobability sample, sometimes called an accidental sample, used because respondents are readily available or convenient.

Correlation: 相关性

一种测量两个变量关系强度和方向的统计方法.其数值可为+1.0到-1.0不等, 0表示没有关系.
A statistic that measures the strength and direction of the relationship between two variables. It may range in value from +1.O to-1.0, with O indicating no relationship.

CPP (Cost Per Point): 每点成本

表示购买每一个视听率点所代表的受众所需的成本.这些受众的规模及其成本随市场人口规模的不同而不同.
A measure of how much it costs to buy the audience represented by one rating point. The size of that audience, and therefore its cost, varies with the size of the market population on which the rating is based.

CPM (Cost Per Thousand): 每千人(户)成本

用于测量一个广告送达的1000名受众的成本.CPM 常被用来比较不同广告载体的价格/效益.
A measure of how much it costs to buy 1OOO audience members delivered by an ad. CPMs are commonly used to compare the cost efficiency of different advertising vehicles.


Counterprogramming: 反向节目编排

一种节目编排策略.广播电视台(网)用与竞争者不同的节目吸引受众.独立广播电视台经常用本地新闻来对抗娱乐节目.
A programming strategy in which a station or network schedules material appealing to an audience other than the competition. Independents often counterprogram local news with entertainment.

Coverage: 覆盖率

为特定广播电视台(网)的潜在受众量.定义为信号送达和覆盖的人口规模.
The potential audience for a given station or network, defined by the size of the population reached, or covered, by the signal.

Cross-sectional: 代表性抽样

一种调查设计方法.每一个时间点从人口中抽取一个样本.
A type of survey design in which one sample is drawn from the population at a point in time.

Cross-tabs: 数据交叉

一种数据分析方法.该方法将某一问题的答案与另一个问题的答案组合找出相交点. 用于确定两个节目的受众重叠.
A technique of data analysis in which the responses to one item are paired with those of another item. Cross, tabs are useful in determining the audience duplication between two programs.

Cume: 累计

累计受众的简称.指在特定段时期内某媒介的全部非重叠受众. 当累计被表示为该市场人口的百分比时, 代表累计视听率.
Short for cumulative audience, it is the size of the unduplicated audience for a station over a specified period. When the cume is expressed as percent of the market population it is referred to as cume rating.

Cume duplication: 累计重叠

在一段特定时期内,两个媒介共享受众的规模.
The percentage of a station's cume audience that also listened to another station, within some specified period.

Daypart: 时段

一段特定时间. 通常是指一天中的特定小时及一周中的特定天数(如:工作日,周末).用于计算平均受众量或买卖广告时间.
A period of time, usually defined by certain hours of the day and days of the week (e.g., weekdays vs. weekends), used to estimate audience size for the purpose of buying and selling advertising time. Dayparts can also be defined by program content (e.g., news, sports).

Demographics: 人口统计因素

用于描述受众组成的一组变量.常用的人口统计变量包括年龄, 性别, 受教育程度, 职业和收入.
A category of variables often used to describe the composition of audiences. Common demographics include age, gender, education, occupation and income.

Diary: 日记

由视听率调查公司派发的日记册, 要求受众在该日记册上记录一周的广播电视收听/收看情况.
A paper booklet, distributed by ratings companies, in which audience members are asked to record their television or radio use, usually for one week. The diary can be for an entire household (television) or for an individual (radio).

Early fringe: 早期边缘时段

电视中在地区新闻节目之前的傍晚时段.
In television, a daypart in late afternoon immediately prior to the airing of local news programs.


Effective exposure: 有效暴露

广告媒介策划中使用的概念.指受众必须有一定的广告暴露频率, 广告才能发生效用. 经常与有效频率交替使用.
A concept in media planning stipulating that a certain amount of exposure to an advertising message is necessary before it is effective. Often used interchangeably with the term effective frequency.


ESS (Effective Sample Size): 有效样本量

能够产生与视听率调查公司所使用的样本同样效果的简单随机抽样规模.ESS便于计算置信区间.
The size of a simple random sample needed to produce the same result as the sample actually used by the rating company. ESS is a convenience used for calculating confidence intervals. Also called effective sample base, or ESB.

Exclusive cume audience: 独家累计受众

在特定时段内只收听某电台的非重叠听众总量.
The size of the unduplicated audience that listens exclusively to one station within some specified period.


Frequency: 频率

指一个受众暴露于某广告信息的次数.
In advertising, the average number of times that an individual is exposed to a particular advertising message.


Fringe: 边缘时间

指下午4-7点前和黄金时段(晚11点)以后的电视节目时段.
In television, dayparts just before prime time (early fringe) and after the late news (late fringe).


Grazing: 频繁更换频道

用来描述电视观众频繁更换频道的趋势.遥控器的使用更加重了这一行为.
The term describing the tendency of viewers to frequently change channels, a behavior that is presumably facilitated by remote control.

Gross impressions: 总体效果

指在一段时期内暴露于某广告的受众总和. 因为有重叠受众,所以该数字有可能超过总体人口.
The number of times an advertising schedule is seen over time. The number of gross impressions may exceed the size of the population since audience members may be duplicated.

GRP (Gross Rating Point): 总视听率点

以占人口的百分比来表示广告的总体效果.GRP常用于一个广告的总体受众或媒介影响力.
The gross impressions of an advertising schedule expressed as a percentage of the population. GRPs are commonly used to describe the size or media weight of an advertising campaign. GRPs=Reach ×Frequency.

Group quarters: 集体宿舍

宿舍,兵营,老人院,监狱以及其它不属于家庭且不被视听率研究公司测量的居住形式.
Dormitories, barracks, nursing homes, prisons, and other living arrangements that do not qualify as households, and are, therefore, not measured by ratings companies.

Hammocking: 吊床效应

一种电视节目编排策略.将一个新的或较弱的节目安排在两个受欢迎的节目中间播出, 以期提高中间节目的收视率.
A television programming strategy in which an unproven or weak show is scheduled between two popular programs in hopes that viewers will stay tuned, thereby enhancing the rating of the middle program.

Household: 家庭

一种可视为一个家庭的居住方式,如:由一个或多个人居住的公寓或独立式住宅.
An identifiable housing unit, such as an apartment or house, occupied by one or more persons.


HUT (Households Using Television): 家庭开机率

代表在任一时间点家庭中的受众总量.表示为推及受众规模或占全部家庭的百分比.
A term describing the total size of the audience, in households, at anyone time. Expressed as either the projected audience size, or as a percent of the total number of households.


Inertia: 惰性

形容受众行为.指除非看到很厌恶的节目, 观众一般不会更换频道.
A description of audience behavior that implies viewers are unlikely to change channels unless Provoked by very unappealing programming.

Inheritance effect: 沿袭效应

电视观众收视行为中的一种常见现象.即一个节目的观众会大批地成为接下来一个节目的观众. 有时被称为 “导入节目效应”.观众的节目沿袭效应可视为一种特殊的频道忠诚性.
A common phenomenon of television audience behavior in which the audience for one program is disproportionately represented in the audience of the following program. Sometimes called lead-in effects, audience inheritance can be thought of as a special case of channel loyalty.

Interview: 访问

通过面对面或电话来口头询问被访者的数据收集方法.
A method of collecting data through oral questioning of a respondent, either in person, or over the telephone.


Late fringe: 晚期边缘时间

紧接在地区新闻(晚23点)之后的电视节目时段.
In television, a daypart just after the late local news(11pm EST).

Lead-in: 导入节目

同一频道内在某一节目之前的一个节目.前一个节目的观众规模和组成是后一个节目收视率的重要决定因素.
The program that immediately precedes another on the same channel. The size and composition of a lead, in audience is an important determinant of a program's rating.


LOP (least objectionable program): 可以接受的节目

Paul Klein 提出的电视观众行为理论.它指出人们收看电视的原因与节目内容无关, 人们会选择收看可以接受的 (不厌恶的) 节目.
A popular theory of television audience behavior attributed to Paul Klein, that argues people primarily watch TV for reasons unrelated to content, and they choose the least objectionable programs.


Measurement error: 测量误差

由测量程序产生的系统偏差或错误.
Systematic bias or inaccuracy attributable to measurement procedures


Meter: 测量仪

一种记录电视机开关及调谐情况的测量装置.
A measure of central tendency defined as that point in a distribution where half the cases have higher values and half have lower values.


Minimum reporting standard: 最低报告标准(MRS)

视听率报告所需的提及收看/收听量.
The number of listening or viewing mentions necessary for a station or program to be included in a ratings report


Multiset household: 多台电视家庭

指拥有一台以上电视的家庭.
A television household with more than one working television set.


Narrowcasting: 窄播

一种节目制作编排策略.指广播电视台(网) 只制作播放同一种类型的节目或只迎合某一类受众的喜好.
A programming strategy in which a station or network schedules content of the same type or appealing to the same subset of the audience.

Net weekly circulation: 每周净循环

在一周中收听/收看某媒介的累计或非重叠受众.
The cume or unduplicated audience using a station or network in a week

Network: 广播电视网

是一个从事生产节目,并将节目与广告一起销售给附属台或有线系统的组织.
An organization that acquires or produces programming and distributes that programming, usually with national or regional advertising, to affiliated stations or cable systems.


Nonprobability sample: 非随机抽样

一种抽样方法.即人口中的每个个体被选为样本的概率不同.见方便抽样,有目的抽样, 和定额抽样.
A kind of sample in which every member of the population does not have a known probability of selection into the sample.


Off-network Programs: 网下节目

原为在主要的广播电视网播出而生产的节目,现在节目联合制作体中销售.
Programs originally produced to air on a major broadcast network, now being sold in syndication.


Overnights: 隔夜报告

一种以测量仪或巧合调查为基础的视听率数据,用户可以在节目播出的第二天得到该数据.
The label given to ratings, based on meters, that are available to clients the day after broadcast.


Passive audience: 被动观众

指那些对所收看的节目内容不加选择的观众.他们的收视行为被认为是出于习惯, 如果没有喜欢的节目, 他们可以收看任何节目.
A term given to viewers who are unselective about the content they watch. Passive audiences are thought to watch TV out of habit tuning to almost anything if a preferred show is unavailable.

Paycable: 付费有线电视

该有线电视系统提供节目的收费高于基本有线电视. 付费有线电视可能包括几个高价节目如:HBO或迪斯尼频道.
The programming services provided by a cable system for a monthly fee above and beyond that required for basic cable. Paycable may include anyone of several premium services like HB0, showtime, or The Disney Channel.

Peoplemeter: 人员测量仪

可以记录电视机开关和调谐的电子装置.它可以辨认出在房间内收看节目的人.需要观众按下按钮来输入信息的测量仪为主动测量仪,而无需观众做任何事情的测量仪为被动测量仪.
A device that electronically records the on-off and channel tuning condition of a TV set and is capable of identifying viewers. If viewers must enter that information by button pressing, the meter is caned active; if the meter requires no effort from viewers, it is called passive.


Placement interview: 定位访问

为确保被访者愿意接受日记或测量仪而进行的初步访问.
An initial interview to secure the willingness of the respondent to keep a diary or receive a meter.


Population: 人口

作为随机抽样基础的个人和家庭总数.通常用人们所居住的地理区域来定义人口.
The total number of persons or households from which a sample is drawn. Membership in a population must be clearly defined, often by the geographic area in which a person lives.


Preempt: 预先占有

附属广播电视台采取的行动,即用自己编排的节目取代所属广播电视网的节目.广告商也可以以高价来预先购买特定的广告时间.
An action, taken by an affiliate, in which programming fed by a network is replaced with programming scheduled by the station. Certain types of commercial time can also be preempted by advertisers willing to pay a premium for the spot.

Prime time: 黄金时间

指从19:00-23:00 的电视节目时段.鉴于FCC的规定, 广播电视网只可以在20:00-23:00的时段内向附属台加入节目.
A television daypart from 7p.m. to 11p.m.EST. Due to FCCeregulations, broadcast networks typically feed programming only from 8p.m.to llp.m.EST.

Probability sample: 概率抽样

一种抽样方法.人口中的每个人都有平等的被抽取的机会. 也称随机抽样. 概率抽样用统计学的推断来说明样本的准确性.
A kind of sample in which every member of the population has an equal or known chance of being selected into the sample. Sometimes called random samples, probability samples allow statistical inferences about the accuracy of sample estimates.


Program type: 节目类型

通常以节目内容的相似性而编排在一类的节目.
A category of programming usually based on similarities in program content.

Projectable: 可推及的样本

表示的是一种样本质量.即可使用该样本来预测全体人口.
A quality describing a sample designed in such a way that audience projections may be made.

Projected audience: 推及的受众

根据样本的信息,推断在总体人口中所存在的某种受众总量.
The size of an audience estimated to exist in the population, based on sample information.


PUR (Persons Using Radio): 收音机个人开机率

用来表示在任一时间点收听广播的听众总量.
A term describing the total size of the radio audience at any point.


PUT (Person Using Television): 电视个人开机率

表示在任一时间点收看电视的观众总量.
A term describing the total size of the television audience, in persons, at any time.

Qualitative ratings: 定性视听率

对受众的数字总结.不仅描述了有多少观众/听众, 还包括他们对节目的反应(如:高兴,有意思,注意,以及获得信息).
Numerical summaries of the audience that not only describe how many watched or listened, but their reactions including enjoyment interest, attentiveness, and information gained.

Qualitative research: 定性调查

不依靠测量及定量方法对受众所进行的任何系统性调查.例如: 小组讨论和参与者观察法.有时也指非视听率调查,即使该调查涉及定量法(如:定性视听率).
Any systematic investigation of the audience that does not depend on measurement and quantification. Examples include focus groups and participant observation. Sometimes used to describe any nonratings research, even if quantification is involved, as in `qualitative ratings.`

Quota sample: 定额抽样

一种非概率抽样.由被访者自己填写被称为定额所属的类别(如: 男性).
A type of nonprobability sample in which categories of respondents called quotas (e.g., males), are filled by interviewing respondents who are convenient.


Random Digit Dialing (RDD): 随机拨号

在电话调查中使用的一种方法,它以随机产生的电话号码作为随机抽样的样本.通过这种方法, 使所有号码 (包括未被列入电话号码簿的电话号码)都有同等的被抽样的机会.
In telephone surveys, a technique for creating a probability sample by randomly generating telephone numbers. By using this method, all numbers (including unlisted) have an equal chance of being called.

Rating:视听率

最简单的形式就是市场总体人口中收听/收看某媒介或节目的个人或家庭所占的比例.
In its simplest form, the percentage of persons or households tuned to a station, program, or daypart out of the total market population.


Reach: 送达

在某特定时期内,某媒介或广告的非重叠个人或家庭受众的总数. 有时表示为占总体人口的百分比.
The number of unduplicated persons or households included in the audience of a station or a commercial campaign over some specified period. Sometimes expressed as a percentage of the market population.


Repeat viewing: 重复收视

一个连续节目的观众收看该节目其它部分的程度.
The extent to which the audience for one program is represented in the audience of other episodes of the series.

Replication: 重复调查

指一项研究重复一个早期研究的程序来检验结果的稳定性.在受众测量中, 重复调查涉及从原样本中再抽出子样本来评估抽样误差.
A study repeating the procedures of an early study to assess the stability of results. In audience measurement, replications involve drawing subsamples from a parent sample to assess sampling error

Respondent: 回复者

在回答问题时提供信息的样本.
A sample member who provides information in response to questions

Response error: 回复误差

由被访者回复质量(如:撒谎,遗忘,误解问题等)而造成的调查数据偏差.
Inaccuracies in survey data attributable to the quality of responses, including lying, forgetting, or misinterpreting question.


Sample: 样本

一些人口的子群.
A subset of some population.

Simple frame: 抽样框

进行概率抽样的人口名单.
A list of some population from which a probability sample is actually drawn.

Sample weighting: 样本加权

一种将不同的数学权重分配给不同的样本子群以更正这些子群的回复率.每个权重是子群占人口的比例与子群占样本比例的比值.
The practice of assigning different mathematical weights to various subsets of the in-tab sample in an effort to correct for different response rates among those subsets. Each weight is the ratio of the subset's size in the population to its size in the sample.


Sampling error: 抽样误差

在产生概率抽样时由于抽样不足而造成的数据偏差.
Inaccuracies in survey data attributable to “the luck of the draw` in creating a probability sample.

Sampling rate: 抽样率

抽样规模与人口规模的比率.
The ratio of sample size to population size.


Sets-in-use: 使用的收音/电视机

在某一时间点打开的收音/电视机的总数.由于大多数家庭拥有多台收音/电视机,所以它已不再是测量总体受众规模的指标了.
The number of sets turned on at a given point. As a measure of audience size, it has become outdated since most households now have multiple sets

Share: 份额

它最简单的形式就是收听/收看某台或某节目的个人或家庭在所有使用某媒介的受众中所占的百分比.
In its simplest form, the percentage of persons or households tuned to a station or program out of all those using the medium at that time.


Simple random sample: 简单随机抽样

一种单一步骤概率抽样法.人口中的每一个人都有同等的被抽取的机会.
A one-stage probability sample in which every member of the population has an equal chance of selection.


Spill: 溢出

指本地区观众收看非本地电视台节目及外地观众收看本地节目的程度.
The extent to which nonmarket stations are viewed by local audiences, or local stations are viewed by audiences outside the market.


Standard error: 标准误差

抽样分布的标准偏差.统计学上用来说明从样本预测的数据的准确性.
The standard deviation of a sampling distribution. It is the statistic used to make statements about the accuracy of estimates based on sample information.


Stratified sample: 分层抽样

一种概率抽样.将人口分成相同的子群或层, 再从每一层抽取预定的样本数目. 分层抽样可以减少由简单随机抽样造成的抽样误差.
A type of probability sample in which the population is organized into homogeneous subsets or strata, after which a predetermined number of respondents is randomly selected for each strata. Stratified sampling can reduce the sampling error associated with simple random samples.

Stripped programming: 节目拆开编排法

一种节目编排方法.将电视节目拆开, 分成连续5天播出.电视台通常将联合制作的节目拆开播出.
A programming practice in which television shows am scheduled at the same time on 5 consecutive weekdays. Stations often strip syndicated programs.


Sweep: 断面调查

指视听率调查公司为准备地区市场报告而进行的为期4周的观众信息收集调查.
In television, a 4-week period during which ratings companies are collecting the audience information necessary to produce local market reports.

Systematic sample: 系统抽样

一种概率抽样.以一定的间隔来从人口名单中抽取所需的样本(如: 每隔10个人抽取一次).
A kind of probability sample in which a set interval is applied to a list often population to identity elements included in the sample (e.g., picking every 10th name).

Target audience: 目标受众

广告商希望广告或媒体希望某类节目送达的任何精细划分的受众子群.
Any well-defined subset of the total audience that an advertiser wants to reach with a commercial campaign or a station wants to reach with a particular kind of programming.

Telephone recall: 电话回忆访问法

电话调查人员要求被访者回忆他们最近的所收听/收看的节目.通常是指前一天的节目.
A type of survey in which a telephone interviewer asks the respondent what they listened to or watched in the recent past, often the preceding day.

Television household (TVHH): 电视家庭

收视率调查中常用的单位.是指任何拥有可收看的电视机的家庭, 不包括居住在集体宿舍的人.
A common unit of analysis in ratings research, it is any household equipped with a working television set, excluding group quarters.


Time period averages: 某时期平均值

在特定时期内平均每一个时间点的受众数量.
The size of a broadcast audience at an average point in time, within some specified period.

Total audience: 总体受众

所有收看/收听某节目达5分钟的受众.基本上是指长节目或小型连续剧的累计受众.
All those who tune to a program for at least 5 minutes. Essentially, it is the cumulative audience for a long program or miniseries.

Trend analysis: 趋势分析

一种纵向调查.对重复独立抽样的结果进行比较.
A type of longitudinal survey design in which results from repeated independent samplings are compared over time.

TSL (Time Spent Listening): 收听时间

对听众在某一时段内收听广播的平均时间的累计测量.
A cumulative measure of the average amount of time an audience spends listening to a station within a daypart.


Unduplicated audience: 非重叠受众

一段时期内的不同的个人或家庭受众.
The number of different persons or households in an audience over a specified period.

Unit of analysis: 分析单位

研究人员用来收集信息的元素.在视听率研究中, 分析单位就是个人或家庭.
The element or entity about which a researcher collects information. In ratings, the unit of analysis is usually a person or household.

Unweighted in-tab: 未经加权的样本

向视听率调查公司提供有用信息的具有不同人口特征的个人的实际数目.
The actual number of individuals in different demographic groups who have returned usable information to the ratings company.

Unwired networks: 无线网络

是一种从全国各电视台购买广告时间并将这些广告时间打包预售,但不提供节目时间的组织.
Organizations that acquire commercial time (usually in similar types of programming) from stations around the country and package that time for sale to advertisers.


VCR (Video-Cassette Recorder): 录像机

一种用来录制和播放录像带的装置.
An appliance used for recording and playing videocassette tapes, now in a majority of U.S. households.


VPVH (Viewers Per Viewing Household): 每个收视家庭的观众

每个电视家庭中收看某电视台或节目的预测人数.通常以人口统计变量进行分类.
The estimated number of people, usually by demographic category, in each household tuned to a particular source.

Weighted in-tab: 加权样本

如果回复率相等, 那么会提供有用信息的具有不同人口统计特征的个人.
The number of individuals in different demographic groups who would have provided usable information if response rates were equivalent. See sample weighting.

Weighting: 加权

分配数学权重的过程.旨在修正未加权样本对某些人群代表过度或代表不足的偏差.
The process of assigning mathematical weights in an attempt to correct over or underrepresentation of some groups in the unweighted in-tab sample. See sample weighting.

 

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